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https://wordpress.com/post/immigration1014.wordpress.com/126

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https://wordpress.com/post/immigration1014.wordpress.com/159

INTRODUCTION

Immigration has shaped the nation. With the first settlers and colonist to those who are forced to migrate and those chose to immigrate to the new world have influenced the culture of this nation.  There were many significant women immigrants who came to America. Around 1637, Anne Hutchinson was ridiculed for holding prayer meetings and was accused of disturbing the peace in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She had Puritans come into the Massachusetts Bay Colony after her and was an example of a woman who spoke her mind even against powerful individuals. The Act which defined the status of mulatto bastards in 1662 decided that any child born in the new country’s fate should be decided by the mother’s skin color. The slave petition for freedom in 1777 was a petition written to Counsel and House of Representatives for the senate of Massachusetts by eight slaves fighting for their freedom. In 1870-1930, Women, Immigration, and Citizenship were reviewed as immigrant wives gained entry to the U.S. In 1887, immigrants were considered criminals as immigrant women and men were accused of selling birth control which was in question morally. In 1912, Mrs. Samuel Friedman wrote a letter to David Bressler about how immigrants were stereotyped. Rose Schneiderman, in 1917 was a polish immigrant who worked to improve wages, hours, and safety standards for American women. The immigration act of 1924 written by congress excluded Asian immigrants by prohibiting the immigration of all immigrants ineligible to citizenship. The immigration and naturalization act of 1965 essentially said no person shall receive priority as an immigrant. Finally, Donald Trump, in the present day voices his opinions on immigrants as being “really bad”. This proves that society believes immigrants to be a negative effect on the nation. This stigma should be reassessed by many considering how much immigrants have actually done for the nation as a whole.

What Donald Trump thinks about Immigrants

“I do business with the Mexican people, but you have people coming through the border that are from all over. And they’re bad. They’re really bad. You have people coming in, and I’m not just saying Mexicans, I’m talking about people that are from all over that are killers and rapists and they’re coming into this country.”

We are going back about 60 years. Donald Trump’s racist comments contradict the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965.This is disappointing to learn considering he is our President-elect. While many immigrants come to America believing it is a safe place from racism, many would be surprised to learn it is much different than Acts such as this depict. When your own President is disregarding this Act there is clearly a major disconnect between government and their policies. Trump is unique because he is one of the first Presidents to speak openly about immigrants as being bad people. They are not all necessarily bad people but Trump makes them seem much worse than they really are. Citizens of the United States view immigrants as lesser people than them because of the way our President-elect views them. This causes a cultural shift back to a society where immigrants are viewed as dangerous as opposed to a group of diverse people that have skills and abilities to offer that people in the homeland do not know about. Overall, Trumps effect on society will cause a more negative outlook on immigrants and lead to a less diverse society.

Source: By Gabe Ortiz on May 5, 2016, and By Gabe Ortiz. “Donald Trump’s Immigration Quotes Are Totally Unrecognizable From Past Republican Presidents.” America’s Voice. 2016. Accessed November 20, 2016. http://americasvoice.org/blog/donald-trumps-immigration-quotes-are-totally-unrecognizable-from-past-republican-presidents/.

What Donald Trump thinks about Immigrants

Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965

“No person shall receive any preference or priority or be discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of his race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence, except as specifically provided in section 101 (a) (27), section 201 (b), and section 203:”

Prior to this Act, the immigration reform was based on national-origin quota system in 1924, which considered ones nationality under a quota. The civil rights movement helped people see how this quota was discriminatory. In 1965 another act was in place to change this quota. Immigration worked to keep families together, by allowing an entire family to enter. Skilled workers and people of use to the United States were allowed in. This benefited the United States as well as these immigrants. This law changed the type of immigrants that would come in because it looked at every immigrant with an equal chance to become a citizen in the United States. Before this act, most immigrants came from Europe and Canada. However, once this act was passed, the majority of immigrants came from Latin America and Asia. This act also saw the population of the United States grow at a substantially higher rate than the years before this act. Women in foreign countries were now able to come into the United States just like the men were.

Sources: Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965, § Sec. 2-202 a.

Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965

The Immigration Act of 1924( Johnson- Reed Act)

“if a wife is of a different nationality from her alien husband and the entire number of immigration visas which may be issued to quota immigrants of her nationality for the calendar month has already been issued, her nationality may be determined by the country of birth of her husband if she is accompanying him and he is entitled to an immigration visa, unless the total number of immigration visas which may be issued to quota immigrants of the nationality of the husband for the calendar month has already been issued. ”

The Immigration Act of 1924 written by Congress excluded Asian immigrants by prohibiting the immigration of all immigrants ineligible to citizenship. Immigrants had to meet certain quotas.  This Act included provision excluding entry to immigrants who were ineligible by race and nationality.

Sources: Immigration Act of 1924, §§ Nationality-12 a (2)-12 b.

The Immigration Act of 1924( Johnson- Reed Act)

Rose Schneiderman, President of Women’s Trade Union League, to Elisabeth Christman “Re: Chambermaids Campaign, 1917”

“I don’t know that there is anything else to say other than that the hotels, of 40 course, opposed the movement for organization among the women and pretty soon the chambermaids became timid and afraid to attend meetings for fear of discharge.We have had a bill in the legislature for two years trying to put the chambermaids under the one day-rest-in-seven law.”

Rose Schneiderman, was a Polish Jewish immigrant who worked to improve wages, hours, saftey standards for American working women. She was elected president of the New York Women’s Trade Union League from 1917- 1949. And from 1926-1950 she was the president of the National WTUL. She was well known and respected by many. The Schneiderman family migrated to New York City  in 1890. She as an unmarried immigrant made an impact on protecting women’s rights when it came to the labor. She attacked sexual segregation in the workplace, brought together industrial women but also white-collar and domestic workers. She also helped chambermaids to receive the proper treatment and work conditions.

Sources: “Rose Schneiderman, President of Women’s Trade Union League, to Elisabeth Christman “Re: Chambermaids Campaign, 1917”” Week 11 lines 39-43

Rose Schneiderman, President of Women’s Trade Union League, to Elisabeth Christman “Re: Chambermaids Campaign, 1917”

Mrs. Samuel Friedman to David Bressler, September 15, 1912

“When I applied to you for transportation, I told you everything, and the truth only. Yet, it was not enough. You humiliated me by asking why I do not pawn my jewelry, which was pawned for the last five years, why I did not sell my furniture, which we did sell to pay my husbands way to Minneapolis. Then you went on asking me, why I do not borrow of friends, and when I told you I owe everybody, you suggested that I should leave my child some place with strangers and go to a hospital to have my second baby. At last, when I told you I intend to pay it all back as it is only a loan, you made me sign a not for $20. My husband had it all arranged with Miss Foxe to pay her $15 as soon as we are in position to do so. Sir, I do not complain! In fact I am very grateful to you. But the reason I mention it all is because, you should not think everyone that comes into the office to ask for aid must be a cheat, a liar and ignorant.”

This letter perfectly portrays how immigrants were treated and stereotyped. Between 1901 and 1922, the IRO, the Industrial Removal Office, which was formed by a Americanized German Jews, helped move thousands of Jews to New York. Mrs. Samuel Friedman is writting  to Mr. Bressler who worked for the Industrial Removal Office which was formed in 1901 to find new jobs for Jewish immigrants. Jewish immigrants faced opposition and prejudice from new immigrants and old colonist because of competitiveness of the job industry.

Sources: Grunwald, Lisa, and Stephen J. Adler. Women’s Letters: America from the Revolutionary War to the Present. New York: Dial Press, 2005, 455-57

Mrs. Samuel Friedman to David Bressler, September 15, 1912

Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and Criminality in the Gilded Age, 1887

“A majority of businesspeople arrested for the crime of birth control were petty proprietors. Many were immigrants, women, or Jews. Few possessed a formal education. Denied the credit and social or educational credentials needed to claim professional respectability or ascend the financial ladder, they were drawn to a trade whose illicit character and low capital requirements made it welcoming to ordinary people. After months of joblessness and nights passed on park benches, the German Jewish immigrant Julius Schmid began selling skin condoms made out of freshly slaughtered sheep intestines in the late 1880s, when he was in his early twenties. Joseph Backrach, a Jewish immigrant with a “common education,” supported a family of nine making rubber womb veils, condoms, male caps, and ticklers in his Brooklyn residence.”

Immigrants were considered to be criminals. In the 1880’s immigrant women and men were the ones selling contraceptives which was questionable morally to even be using contraceptives. Contraceptives were only legal to married women, not single.  A Polish-Jew, Morris Glattustine  Colgate was arrested for selling condoms. These particular immigrants were considered to be uneducated, with bad morals, and rarely respected because they were Jewish. At this time they didn’t have any other choose but to find jobs like this to support themselves.

Sources: Tone, Andrea. “Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Enterpreneurship and Criminality in the Gilded Age.” The Journal of American History 87, no. 2 (2000): 444.

Black Market Birth Control: Contraceptive Entrepreneurship and Criminality in the Gilded Age, 1887

Translation of a Chinese brothel contract in California, 1886

“The contractee Xin Jin became indebted to her master/mistress for food and passage to San Francisco. Since she is without funds, she will voluntarily work as a prostitute at Tan Fu’s palce 5 for four and one-half years for an advance of 1,205 yuan (U.S. $524) to pay this debt.”

This contract for a brothel in California is dated the after the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, that excluded women from Asia to enter the U.S. So it is absurd what women would do in order to come this country and stay. These women were prostitutes getting payed pretty much nothing. They were never going to be free, because they didn’t make enough money to live on their own. Their wages were so poor. These women were forced to live these demoralizing lives due to the Exclusion Act.

Sources: “Translation of a Chinese brothel contract in California,” 1886, Week 9 lines 3-5

Translation of a Chinese brothel contract in California, 1886

The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration and Citizenship, 1870-1930

“Family status gave immigrant wives an entree into the United States that for many women would have been otherwise impossible in the face of racial, medical, economic, moral, or geographic exclusions.”

In the 1840’s millions of Irish immigrants had come to America. They were more trust worthy than the Asian women. The Irish unlike the earlier migration, they had no skills, no previous experience. They lacked money, clothing, education and religion. This book written by Martha Mabie Garder written in 2005 talks about the hardships that women faced when coming to America. In the 19th and 20th century coverture played a key role in immigrants women. Coverture is the legal status of a married women usually under protection of her husband and most of the time his property. Families were torn apart through the exclusions of the immigration and naturalization laws. So the best way a women could enter this country was by her marital status. The marital status made a huge difference in the rights and privileges that were given to women. In 1855 any immigrant women who married an American citizen became a citizens through marriage. But this only applied to white women. The Act of July 14, 1870 gave citizenship to African Americans, but they still didn’t receive civil rights. By 1887 Native American were given the right to citizenship, but only if they lived off reservations and among the white society. Chinese immigrants were excluded from naturalization laws. Wives of Asian laborers were allowed to enter this country after they proved their martial status. No one was allowed entry if were diseased or ill that couldn’t be cured leaving families separated.

Sources: Martha Mabie Gardner, “Chapter 1: Immigrants, Citizens, Marriage,” in The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration, and Citizenship,1870-1965 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005): 23

 The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration and Citizenship, 1870-1930